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1 Feb, 2016

Ahead of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference in December, countries around world submitted their pledges to the UN, setting out how far they intend to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. These are called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions - or INDCs.

The Asian countries have articulated in their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to undertake emission reductions. China, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Philippines, Tajikistan, Thailand, and Viet Nam, Malaysia and Sri Lanka have pledged in their NDCs to reduce emission intensity, increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix and improve forest cover indicating their resolve to bend their national emissions curves.

In major effort to combat greenhouses gas emission, China has pledged to source 20% of its energy from low-carbon sources by 2030. In fact official news agency of China, Xinhua called the deal “a particularly sweet victory for China, which emerged to take a leading role” in the negotiations.

India has promised 33-35% reduction in emissions intensity by 2030. The country has pledges to achieve 40% of cumulative electricity from non-fossil fuel based resources by 2030. Many argue that 1.5 degrees target will avoid putting the lives of millions along its coastline and those dependent directly on agricultural yields at risk. The country has also sought $2.5 trillion in finance for achieving its INDC by 2030, so a global commitment of $100 billion pales in comparison.

Bangladesh has pledged of an unconditional 5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. It has also promised further 15% reduction conditional upon international support. 

Indonesia with assurance of 29% reduction in emissions by 2030 has also promised that the country will increase its reduction goal to 41%, conditional on support from international cooperation. Japan has pledged 26% reduction in emissions on 2013 levels by 2030.

Maldives have pledged an unconditional 10% reduction in energy sector emissions by 2030 while as Myanmar has promised an increase hydropower capacity to 9.4 gigawatts by 2030, to achieve rural electrification based on at  least 30% renewable sources.

Bhutan has decided to remain carbon neutral, so that emissions of greenhouse gases do no exceed carbon sequestration by forests. It has also pledged to maintain current levels of forest cover. Philippines, on the other hand, aims to cut emissions of about 70% by 2030.

South Korea is for 37% reduction on business-as-usual emissions by 2030. Singapore is for 36% reduction in emission intensity by 2030, compared to 2005 levels, with emissions peaking around 2030.

It was one of the successes of the Paris summit that the countries were willing to make their own commitments to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. 


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