March 1, 2016
Ten countries produce nearly 69 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions. China and the United States alone produce 43.93 per cent of global emissions. China is also the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases as it surpassed United States in 2006 as the top emitter of carbon dioxide.
According to China's intended nationally determined contributions (INDC), China aims to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 percent to 65 percent from the 2005 level by 2030. Chinese newspapers claim that in 2014, carbon emissions per unit of GDP were 33.8 percent lower than the 2005 level.
Even though the United States contributes to Co2 emissions at a large scale, the carbon emissions and greenhouse gas emissions have been falling in the United States for past one decade. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, carbon emissions in the U.S. have fallen 10.2 per cent in the past ten years.
In 2014, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), 38 per cent of US energy-related CO2 emissions came from the power generation sector with 76 per cent of emissions being from coal and 22 per cent from gas.
India being the third big polluter in the world with 5.8 per cent of global emissions has committed to a UN climate body that it would fulfil its global commitment by cutting its carbon emission intensity voluntarily. In 2010, the second most populous country in the world, committed to a 20 per cent to 25 per cent cut in carbon emissions relative to economic output by 2020 against 2005 levels.
Russia's contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is 4.79 per cent. The country has committed boosting energy efficiency 40 per cent and expanding renewable energy 4.5 per cent by 2020. Japan has gone for a drastic change in plans to curb carbon pollution after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Its Co2 emission at present is 3.84 percent. Germany with 2.23 per cent Co2 emissions has committed to 2020 European Union-set goals to reduce greenhouse gases 40 per cent by 2020.
Incidentally, half of the top 20 cities in the world with the highest levels of PM2.5 were in India, according to the data released by the WHO, which included 1,600 cities. The WHO guidelines consider anything over 10 micrograms per cubic meter of particulate matter dangerous to health.
New Delhi tops the list as its air has PM2.5 concentrations of 153 micrograms and PM10 concentrations of 286 micrograms. India’s capital city has six times the levels of airborne particulate matter than are considered safe, making it one of the most polluted cities of the world.
Patna, the capital of India’s eastern state of Bihar, has the highest levels of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 of 149 micrograms. Gwalior city in central state of Madhya Pradesh is the third most polluted city in India having PM2.5 concentration with 144 micrograms.
Raipur, the capital of mineral-rich state of Chhattisgarh is the fourth most polluted city having PM2.5 concentration of 134 micrograms. Housing large textile industries, Ahmedabad in the western state of Gujarat has PM 2.5 concentration of 100 micrograms making it fifth most polluted city of the country.